Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Phthorimaea (Scrobipalpa) operculella to attract males, with a duration of 40 days in normal field conditions...
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|Target pest||Potato tuberworm moth|
|OMDF register number||075/2013|
Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Phthorimaea (Scrobipalpa) operculella to attract males, with a duration of 40 days in normal field conditions.
Diffuser of natural rubber in capsule-shape. It is packaged individually in an aluminium sachet with labelled instructions. Once taken out of the sachet, the diffuser does not need any activation operation. Simply place it directly in the trap
Phthorimaea operculella is an insect of American origin that has spread throughout the world. It attacks all kind of Solanaceae plants such as tobacco, eggplant, tomatoes, peppers and especially potatoes.
Their attacks are very serious as the caterpillar lives in the tubers and the damage manifests itself in potatoes stored in warehouses.
MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY
The adult of the potato tuberworm moth is a small butterfly of 7 to 9 millimeters in length, the wings are gray with black spots and end with fringes.
The larva is pinkish white with a dark tip. They pupate inside a light-coloured cocoon. The oval eggs are initially white and then darken.
The insect develops better in warmer climates where it can have up to 7 generations a year. The females have crepuscular habits (at night or twilight) and have a short life span.
They prefer to lay their eggs on the potato tubers but can also lay them in the aerial part and on other wild or cultivated solenaceous plants.
The larva penetrates the plant and lives as a miner in the leaves and stems. It begins carving the galleries at the base of the buds. Inside the tuber the larva initially carves superficial galleries but these gradually become deeper. When their development is complete they leave the gallery to pupate, although this can also be done inside the tuber.
In places with higher temperatures such as warehouses the cycle is repeated over the winter. In places with cooler conditions, such as the countryside, it winters in the form of a pupa.
DETECTION AND MONITORING
1 to 2 traps should be set per hectare, placed at crop level. They can be placed on a support for this purpose. The traps should be set in spring.
Mostly the males of this species are captured, in order to reduce the mating, so that non-copulated females will have unviable eggs. This reduces the pest population
To carry out mass trappings the number of traps per area should be increased depending on the location and homogeneity of the crops. One trap can control an area of between 500 and 1,000 m². This entails a trap density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare.
A trap ECONEX POLILLERO (Code: TA001), ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets (Code: TA118) or ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR (Code: TA242) and a pheromone diffuser ECONEX PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA.
The trap ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets is activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR (Code: TA248) at the base of it. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure sensitive adhesive, solvent free, in which insects are trapped. The trap ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR is coated on its inner face with a layer of contact adhesive, solvent free, for the retention of the insects.
Both traps stand out above all for their simplicity of use, and will be operative until pheromone depletion or saturation of the sheet or adhesive surface. The pheromone diffuser is placed inside the trap on the sheet or adhesive surface.
PERIOD OF USE
To achieve good control of Phthorimaea operculella, it is advisable to combine the two methods: detection and monitoring and mass trapping.
In spring you can place 1 or 2 traps per hectare to detect the pest and observe the level of their populations. Through established thresholds of tolerance in each area, the control measures are later defined, in this case mass trapping.
The threshold of tolerance for Phthorimaea operculella is very low and varies according to the area. Generally it is around 3 captures per trap and per week. Moment in which we recommend to set traps all over the crop for mass trappings.
The damage caused to potatoes in the field is not as serious as that caused in stored potato tubers.
Attacks can begin in the warehouse or, in many cases the tubers have already been infected in the field. Avoid leaving potatoes piled up in the field after they have been dug up. It is advisable to cover them with uprooted bushes. It is also advisable to destroy the remains of the crop in addition to any tubers that have been attacked.
Tubers that have been attacked are easily recognised because larva excrement can be seen beside the buds and at the holes bored by the larvae. This excrement is white at first and later black, giving it its characteristic appearance and revealing the presence of the insect.
Although it has been said that the moth also attacks the aerial parts of the plant, the most serious damage is to the tubers when they are piled up in the field or in warehouses. The damage happens when the galleries dug by the larvae are subsequently invaded by various fungi and bacteria that cause rot in potatoes and their subsequent commercial loss.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NUMBER OF TRAPS REQUIRED
Pest population, adjoining crops, level of control required, etc.
An important factor is crop size. More traps are needed in small and irregular sized crops than in uniform plots with a larger surface area. Another important factor is the distance from other plots that have the same pest. In such cases plot boundaries should be consolidated, so a trap density of up to 20 traps per hectare may be needed. More traps may be needed in the case of mass trappings
STORAGE OF THE DIFFUSERS
The diffusers must be kept in their original container and in a refrigerator at 4oC, or in the freezer at -18oC, in which case they will remain valid for 2 and 4 years respectively.