Kit consisting of a RHYNCHONEX® PHEROMONE diffuser 90 DAYS and a RHYNCHONEX® KAIROMONE 90 DAYS...
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|Target pest||Red palm weevil|
|NOTE||THE INDICATED PRICE IS PER UNIT.|
|IMPORTANT||DO NOT OPEN THE BLISTER PACK|
ECONEX CATALOGUE OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR FOREST PESTS
Kit consisting of a RHYNCHONEX® PHEROMONE diffuser 90 DAYS and a RHYNCHONEX® KAIROMONE 90 DAYS diffuser, in the same blister, for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, with a duration of 90 days and an identification label to place on the traps with the date of placement and replacement of the kit. It is sold in boxes of 6 units.
The Red Palm Weevil is an invasive exotic species and phytosanitary quarantine species which is present in Spain since 1995, when it was detected in Granada and Malaga.
This insect, originally from the tropical regions of Asia and Polynesia, has extended continuously through other areas of the planet, colonising different species of palm trees.
Currently, it is one of the main pests that affect palm trees in the Middle East and North Africa. From these areas, through traditional palm tree exporters to Europe, is where the insect has been introduced onto the Iberian Peninsula.
ESPECIES DE PALMERAS AFECTADAS
The insect colonises a large number of species of palm tree. In the countries of origin it is referenced in Coconut Palms (Cocos nucifera) and Guinea Palm trees (Elaeis guineensis) amongst many others. Nevertheless, in Spain it stands out mainly because of its attacks on the Canary Palm tree (Phoenix canariensis) and the Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which is the most representative of our palm trees. It also affects the Washingtonia Palm (Washingtonia spp)
MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a coleopteron belonging to the Curculionidae family.
Adult: Its size is quite big, reaching between 2 and 5 cm long. The insects of this family are characterised for having an extended head in the shape of a beak (“face”), where the antennae are positioned in the shape of a reddish mace.
The pre-thorax shows some very visible black stains of variable size and shape. Along the elytrons the linear markings are emphasised, also in black.
The males are differentiated from the females by a “comb”, thick and few hairs on the end of the beak.
Egg: It is oval-shaped. The egg-laying is done individually on the soft tissue of the palm tree's crown. It measures between 1 and 2.5 mm long. On average, the females lay between 300 and 400 eggs.
Larva: It develops on the inside of the palm tree's living tissues, until reaching between 3 and 5 cm in size. At the beginning it has a creamy white colour that in the last stage acquires a darker tone. It is clearly apodous (with no legs). Its general aspect is pear-shaped, which gives it a chubby look. The head, which is brown, has very powerful jaws that allow it to perforate the vegetable tissues of its host.
Pupa: It is found mainly at the base of palm trees, surrounded by a good sized oval cocoon (4 to 6 cm long), and made by the larva with fibres from the same palm tree. In which case, it is not easy to detect the insect if the area where it has inserted itself is not opened.
Aspects of its biology
Its capacity for reproduction is very important. In Spain the complete cycle, from egg to adult, has a duration of three and four months.
The adults do not tend to abandon the palm tree where they have developed, until it is practically destroyed. So, there can be various generations inside the same specimen, where at any given moment all the phases/stages of the plague can be found.
The adults have a very high ability for flying, which allows them a great capacity for the dispersion and colonisation of new palm trees. They seem to show a preference for hurt or weak palm trees. Once the first adults arrive at a suitable palm tree, the males generate an aggregation pheromone that attracts many red palm weevils of both sexes.
The females deposit their eggs in holes made by their face (or beak), in injured parts of the tree made during the harvest, pruning and defoliation.
The Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larva feeds on the live tissue of the palm tree.
The infested palm trees are a source of infestation for other palm trees.
SYMPTOMS AND DAMAGES
The most common symptom which could alert one to an insect infestation is the withered look of the leaves in the centre of the crown of the tree. These eventually dry up and fall to the ground.
In very severe infestations the crown of the tree dries up and the palm tree dies. Infected branches pull away easily and at the base of the tree larval galleries can be seen. Frequently, the pupae cocoons can also be seen.
Upon opening the crown of a palm tree at an advanced stage of infection, we find lots of larvae of various sizes in a fermenting tissue that gives off an unpleasant and characteristic smell.
The infected palm trees die due to the heart of them being completely burrowed through and the interior in decomposition.
Life cycle: Eggs: less than 1 week. Larva: approximately 4 to 6 weeks. Pupa: approximately 2 or 3 weeks. Adults: approximately 12 to 16 weeks.
Source: Leaflet "Curculiónido Ferruginoso o Picudo Rojo de las Palmeras", published by the Conselleria d´Agricultura, Pesca i Alimentació of the Generalitat Valenciana.
The Rhynchonex® system consists of using traps, pheromones and kairomones for the detection and monitoring of the Red Palm Weevil: Rhynchophorous ferrugineus.
Scientific investigation has demonstrated that the weevils find the host palm trees through the sense of sight and smell.
DETECTION AND MONITORING
We will use 1 to 3 RHYNCHONEX® traps per hectare (at least 1 per plot), placed preferably buried in the ground. In case of not being able to bury the trap, the CROSSTRAP® MINI trap is recommended.
The traps placed to carry out the detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, should be placed 100 metres apart from each other. Up to 1 trap per 10 hectares can be placed.
The traps should be placed throughout the year, especially in spring, summer and autumn, given that the activity of the pest increases with the temperature.
For exhaustive monitoring the number of traps per surface area is increased, according to the location and uniformity of the plots: approximately 1 RHYNCHONEX® or CROSSTRAP® MINI trap every 50 metres. This translates into a density of 4 to 6 RHYNCHONEX® or CROSSTRAP® MINI traps per hectare.
Using traps with pheromones and kairomones, the Rhynchophorus ferrugineus females and males are captured, in a proportion of 2/3 females and 1/3 males. By capturing both adult males and females, mating is reduced.
The females that are captured tend to already be fecundated. Therefore, capturing these females is very effective in reducing the egg-laying on the palm trees. Each insect captured is an insect less on the palm tree
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF TRAPS NEEDED
An important factor is the size of the plantations. In small and irregular plantations a larger number of traps is required than in plots with more uniform and larger surface areas.
Another important factor is the distance between some plots to others. In cases like this, the boundaries of the plots have to be reinforced. This means a density of up to 3 traps per hectare could be needed.
RHYNCHONEX®or CROSSTRAP® MINI traps.
The RHYNCHONEX® traps are humid traps that are used together with pheromones and kairomones, for the detection and monitoring of the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.
They are made of a plastic polymer that does not emit odors when heated by the effect of the sun, and they support ultraviolet rays, with a half-life of 6 to 7 years.
They are made up of three easily adjustable parts, a base, a lid and a special hanger to hang the RHYNCHONEX® ATTRACTANTS KIT diffuser.
The traps include a rhombus-shaped plastic mesh, which is especially designed to simulate the roughness of the trunk of the palm tree. This makes it easier for the Red Palm weevils to enter into the trap.
The RHYNCHONEX® 17 trap has a volume of 17 litres. The frusto conical shape of the base of the trap is red and has 4 perpendicular holes with measurements of 3 x 7 cm, so the insects can enter in easily. The lid is also red and has 4 entrance holes with 3 x 7 cm measurements.
The RHYNCHONEX® 7.5 trap has the same characteristics as the RHYNCHONEX® 17, but with a volume of 7.5 liters. The lid has 2 entrance holes with 3 x 7 cm measurements.
They are wet traps, so they should be filled with water up to 2/3 of their volume, and should be placed half-buried to the entrance holes, and preferably in the shade, since they retain humidity for longer.
Using the wet RHYNCHONEX® traps, the red date palm weevill dies by drowning in the water.
It is recommended to cover the traps a little bit with palm tree leaves, to increase humidity and avoid excessive evaporation.
In case of not being able to use buried RHYNCHONEX® traps (being in areas where they can be manipulated by unauthorized persons, or should be out of the reach of children in public parks and gardens) it is recommended to use the CROSSTRAP® MINI traps.
In the natural environment, it is recommended to use only the CROSSTRAP® MINI trap, due to its high specificity.
CROSSTRAP® MINI traps:
For trapping in the natural environment or if you are not able to use the buried RHYNCHONEX® trap, it is recommended to use the CROSSTRAP® MINI WITH DRY COLLECTION CUP (Code: TA204) trap.
The CROSSTRAP® MINI WITH DRY COLLECTION CUP trap is a suspended trap that captures insects in flight and is very effective from spring to autumn. The design and the slippery coatings of the trap stop the captured insects from escaping.
The trap does not require any type of liquid and does not need a food attractant. The insects die on the inside of the collection cup through dehydration, which makes handling it easier. The traps can be hanged from natural or artificial supports, but always at a sufficient distance away from the palm trees.
Attractants diffuser RHYNCHONEX® ATTRACTANTS KIT:
Kit consisting of a RHYNCHONEX® PHEROMONE 90 DAYS diffuser and a RHYNCHONEX® KAIROMONE 90 DAYS diffuser, in the same blister, for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, with a duration of 90 days and an identification label to place on the traps with the date of placement and replacement of the kit. It is sold in boxes of 6 units.
RHYNCHONEX® PHEROMONE 90 DAYS: Is a pheromone diffuser of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus with a mixture of 4-methyl-5-nonanol and 4-methyl-nonanone. It has a duration of 90 days in field conditions.
RHYNCHONEX® KAIROMONE 90 DAYS: Is a kairomone diffuser of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus made up of ethyl acetate. It has a duration of 90 days in field conditions.
Scientific research has shown that the synergistic action of pheromone and kairomone acting together increases significantly the number of catches, increasing them by 2.5 to 5 times.
The kit should be stored in its original packaging and it is recommended to keep it in the fridge at 4o C in which case it can last up to 2 years.
This is a plastic red palm beetle. It is 5 cm in size and is placed on the outside of the RHYNCHONEX® trap and used as bait, complementing the signal emitted by the attractants.
The combination of food and pheromones increases the efficiency of the system: dates, sugar cane, apples and bananas are foods that can be used in the RHYNCHONEX® trap.
FLIGHT PERIOD OF THE RED DATE PALM WEEVIL
The average amount of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus adults captured per month, between the years 2005 and 2008 in 2,876 traps distributed the provinces of Alicante and Valencia, in accordance with the results displayed in López-Calatayud (2008).
López-Calatayud, J.J. (2008) Detection and erradication campaign of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in the Valencian Community: control strategies of de red date palm weevil. CONAMAD. 1 to 5 of December, 2008, Madrid.
ADVICE ON PLACING THE TRAPS
It is recommended to space the traps 50 to 100 m apart.
The RHYNCHONEX® traps that are placed in the shade retain the humidity for longer. The CROSSTRAP® MINI traps can be installed in both shady areas and sunny areas, preferably outside the plots.
The increasing number of newly infested palm trees by the Red Palm Weevil on the Mediterranean coast, despite great efforts carried out by the Plant Health Authorities with regard to the elimination of infested specimens and foliar treatments, shows that it is not possible to control this pest with only one type of treatment or intervention. It is necessary the application of a well-defined and programmed integrated control strategy.
The application of an integrated control strategy not only allows the infected palm trees to recuperate, but also to prevent the dispersal of the pest.
This integrated control strategy is based on regular inspections carried out on palm trees, the installation of a network of traps for exhaustive monitoring, the implementation of mechanical or chemical sanitation for infested palm trees and preventive treatments for all the palm trees in the area.
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