Kairomone diffusers for the attraction of both sexes of the species Monochamus galloprovincialis, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions...
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|Target pest||Pine sawyer beetle|
Kairomone diffusers for the attraction of both sexes of the species Monochamus galloprovincialis, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions.
The diffusers are blister-pack shaped, with a polyolefin layer permeable to the active ingredients, and they are packaged in an aluminium sachet with labelled specifications. Once taken out of the sachet, the diffusers do not need any activation operation. Simply place them directly in the trap. DO NOT OPEN, CUT OR PERFORATE THE BLISTERS. The appropriate emission rate is achieved by diffusion through the polyolefin layer.
The Cerambycid or Longhorns are a family of beetles with strictly phytophagous habits, which highlight in importance the species that feed on woody vegetable tissue.
The Monochamus genus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) is part of the Monochamini tribe, made up of more than 600 species grouped into nearly 100 types. It is about a family with phytophagous habits, being of forest interest many species that feed on woody vegetable tissue, the large majority of them are in the group of saproxylics. These species play very important roles in the forest ecosystem and are key parts in the material and energy cycles in the forests.
The Monochamus genus is composed of some 150 species distributed all over the world, mainly living in Equatorial Africa, where numerous species attack the coffee and cocoa. In the temperate forests of the Holarctic region, the Monochamus species live on top of conifers.
With regards to the Iberian Peninsula, two species of the genus can be found: Monochamus sutor (Linneo, 1758) and M. galloprovincialis (Olivier, 1795). M. sutor is a Palearctic species that reaches as far as Japan, but rare in Spain considering that it only distributes in the Pyrenees. The second species, M. galloprovincialis, is much more common and is found in the Mediterranean basin, central Europe, Caucasus, Siberia, Mongolia and China. On the Iberian Peninsula it lives on practically all of the Pinus species, including Abies and Picea. Some evidence indicates that on the Iberian Peninsula they show a low preference for Pinus pinea.
The adults gnaw at the bark and the phloem of the growing twigs and the larvae feed on phloem-xylem tissue. None of the species from the Monochamus genus reproduce in healthy trees. They only feel attracted to very stressed-out, dying or recently dead trees and also newly chopped down trees, favoured by previous attacks from Ipini beetles (Orthotomicus and Ips). In fact, the kairomonal bait used to attract them is composed of kairomones produced by the host tree and kairomones produced by the bark beetles that attack the tree, mainly Ipsenol.
When Monochamus colonise these trees with a previous population of bark beetle established, it then acts as an intraguild predator.
This means that the Monochamus larvae feed on the phloem and beetle larvae that they find in it, without distinction. This extra protein contribution is very likely to give the larvae a certain advantage over those that do not eat them, (Mas, 2016).
The female lays eggs in openings or bite marks, excavated in the bark of dying trees.
The larvae, apodous, are more or less cylindrical and have a thickening on the cephalic segments that partially hide the head. They initially feed on phloem and cambium to later enter into the xylem and build a U-shaped gallery that becomes a pupa chamber, where they emerge through a circular hole. Once the young adult has surfaced, it goes through a period of sexual maturity, in which it feeds on brachyblasts, phloem, and tender bark from small branches and pine shoots.
Monochamus galloprovincialis is a non-aggressive insect that contributes important benefits to the function of the forest ecosystem and it would not be of much interest were it not for the fact that Monochamus galloprovincialis was identified as the vector for the Pine Wilt Nematode (PWN). The disease was produced by the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Sousa et al. 2001) and is currently the main vector of the disease on the Iberian Peninsula. Interaction between the two organisms is a relationship of mutual interest, obligatory for the nematode and facultative for the beetle. It is like that because the nematode needs the beetle for its transport and dispersal. The beetle benefits from the death of the forest caused by the nematode because it means an increase in host material where they can lay their eggs.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a pest introduced into European territory in 1999 when it was detected in the Setubal Peninsula, in Portugal. Since then, it has spread out so much so, that it has currently been declared a demarcated area in practically all of continental Portugal.
Since 2008, four recordings of PWN have been detected in Spain. All of them near the Portuguese border, three of them distributed in the Cáceres province and one in Pontevedra. Three of them are considered to be under control and one completely eradicated.
Worldwide, only seven species of the Monochamus genus have shown to be effective in transmitting B. xylophilus: M. carolinensis, M. mutator, M. scutellatus and M. titillator in North America; M. alternatus and M. saltuarius in Northeast Asia and M. galloprovincialis in Europe.
Therefore, one of the fundamental tools for the control of the disease is the control of its vector, seeing as it is the only method of transmitting the nematode from one tree to another.
DETECTION AND MONITORING
Work carried out in the framework of the REPHRAME European Project have revealed that the most effective trap in capturing Monochamus galloprovincialis is the CROSSTRAP® trap (Álvarez et al, 2014), including the live capture of this insect. Capturing live insects is the best way to evaluate if they carry nematodes, given that when the insect dies, the nematodes abandon the insect.
For the detection and monitoring of Monochamus galloprovincialis in areas free of the nematode, 1 CROSSTRAP® trap will be installed every 20 ha in forests. They should be separated at least 1000 m from each other. In surfaces less than 20 ha at least 1 trap should be installed per forest stand.
In order to protect wood stockpiles, use 3 to 10 traps surrounding the area. The traps should be installed in areas with good visibility, such as forest edges, forest paths or fire-breaks. Especially windy areas should be avoided, as it makes it difficult for the insects to fly and could damage the traps.
In general, the traps should be installed and operative between April and December.
CROSSTRAP® traps and ECONEX MONOCHAMUS ATTRACTANT kairomone diffusers which will be hung on the trap using one of the holes made for this purpose in one of the PVC sheets.
STORAGE OF THE DIFFUSERS
The diffusers must be kept in their original container and in a refrigerator at 4oC, or in the freezer at -18oC, in which case they will remain valid for 90 and 150 days respectively.