Aggregation pheromone diffusers for the attraction of both sexes of the species Ips sexdentatus, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions...
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|Target pest||Six-toothed pine engraver beetle|
|OMDF register number||135/2014|
|IMPORTANT||DO NOT OPEN THE BLISTER PACK|
Aggregation pheromone diffusers for the attraction of both sexes of the species Ips sexdentatus, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions.
The diffusers are blister-pack shaped, with a polyolefin layer permeable to the active ingredients, and they are packaged in an aluminium sachet with labelled specifications. Once taken out of the sachet, the diffusers do not need any activation operation. Simply place them directly in the trap. DO NOT OPEN, CUT OR PERFORATE THE BLISTERS. The appropriate emission rate is achieved by diffusion through the polyolefin layer.
The Ips genus is comprised of 36 species distributed throughout North America, Europe and Asia, having been introduced into Australia and Africa (Faccoli, 2004 &; Sun, 2007), of which 14 species are distributed throughout the Palearctic region (Knizek, 2011).
Amongst the Ips species are some of the most aggressive of bark beetles. On the Iberian Peninsula 4 species are distributed, amongst which Ips sexdentatus is found, the biggest bark beetle of all European fauna.
This species has on occasion been considered primary or aggressive, capable of killing trees in the initial stages of deterioration, of the species Pinus sylvestris, P. radiata, P. nigra and P. pinaster. It has also been sighted on Pseudotsuga menziesii and some species of Abies, Picea, Cedrus and Larix.
It has three generations annually. In each generation the females can lay eggs during two or three consecutive periods, leading to various sister generations.
It is a polygamous species in which the male is the pioneer in colonisation, making an entrance hole in the tree trunk that leads towards the chamber beneath the cortex, where mating takes place (nuptial chamber).
The average amount of females that enter in each mating chamber are four. After mating, all of the females start excavating a gallery in which the egg-laying will take place staggered and on both sides, depositing between 10 and 60 eggs.
At the beginning of May, the first nymphs and immature adults can be observed. Once they have reached their sexual maturity, they begin to look for new places to lay eggs. In this way, a second and third generation begin and they develop throughout the summer.
DETECTION AND MONITORING
In forests 1 CROSSTRAP® MINI trap per 20 ha should be installed, the traps should be separated at least 1000 m from each other. In surfaces less than 20 ha at least 1 trap should be installed per forest stand.
In order to protect little stands or wood stockpiles use from 3 to 10 traps surrounding the area. The traps should be installed in areas with good visibility, such as edges of the forest, forest paths or fire-breaks. Especially windy areas should be avoided, as it makes it difficult for the insects to fly and could damage the traps.
A detection trap should cover the environmental changes of the target forest area. In general, the traps should be installed and operative between the middle of March and middle of November.
To intensify monitoring, the traps should be placed at a distance of between 100 and 500 metres apart, following forest trails, fire-breaks or the edges of the forest.
The amount of traps can rotate between 0,3 and 3 CROSSTRAP® MINI traps per ha. They can also be installed inside the forest, provided that the forest is not too dense. For exhaustive monitoring dry (live) captures are recommended, using the collection jar with a stainless steel mesh and a slippery film.
CROSSTRAP® MINI traps and ECONEX IPS SEXDENTATUS 3C pheromone diffusers which will be hung on the trap using the holes made for this purpose in one of the PVC sheets.
DAMAGES AND ELEMENTS OF DIAGNOSIS
Ips sexdentatus usually behaves like a secondary species, attacking recently dead trees, such as newly felled, or much damaged trees made by fires. On occasions it can also behave like a primary or aggressive species, attacking supposedly healthy trees, but having some sort of decay.
The attacked trees are not very recognisable, only because of the piles of sawdust evacuated from the galleries and, on occasions, the volcanoes of resin in relatively healthy trees. When the destruction of the phloem is well advanced the crown begins to turn yellow, so they are easily distinguished from those that weren't attacked.
This species is also important because it vectorises blue-stain fungi, such as, Ophiostoma or Leptographium (Kirisits, 2004), also it includes pathogens like Ophiostoma minus and O. ips (Romón et al, 2007).
STORAGE OF THE DIFFUSERS
The diffusers must be kept in their original container and in a refrigerator at 4oC, or in the freezer at -18oC, in which case they will remain valid for 3 months and 1 year respectively.