Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Lobesia botrana to attract males, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions...
|European grapevine moth
Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Lobesia botrana to attract males, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions.
Diffuser of natural rubber in capsule-shape. It is packaged individually in an aluminium sachet with labelled instructions. Once taken out of the sachet, the diffuser does not need any activation operation. Simply place it directly in the trap
This tortricid moth is perhaps the most serious pest to vine crops in Spain. It is also known as the grape moth. There are other species that are also known as grape moths such as Eupoecilia (Clysia) ambiguella and Cryptoblabes gnidiella, to name but two.
Without doubt Lobesia botrana is the most widespread of these pests and poses a more serious threat than the others. Clysia ambiguella is quite a serious problem in the more humid areas of the north. This second species damages vineyards in other wetter countries such as France and northern Italy.
MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY
The adult has a wingspan of about 12 mm, with brown wings with various dark and light tones. The larva is green or occasionally brown with a brownish-grey head. The pupa is protected by a white silky cocoon. The eggs are yellowish and flat and are scattered among the fruit and look like small drops of wax. They winter as pupae hidden in the bark of the vines but can also be found in the soil or at crop boundaries.
The emergence of the adults in spring is staggered and they fly at dawn and dusk. The 1st generation eggs are laid on the corolla of the flowers. Each female lays between 50 and 80 eggs which hatch in about a week. The larvae live on the grape bunches, joining them to the flower buds with silk threads which form masses. They pupate on the leaves or on the bark of the vines and a new generation of adults emerge.
The 2nd and 3rd generation of adults lay their eggs on the grapes, preferably if they are smooth and dry. They search for shady areas that will protect them from drying out. Humidity or sulphur powder can prevent egg-laying.
There can be 2 generations in regions with a cooler climate and 3 generations in Mediterranean and southern regions, although this can vary depending on the climate conditions of that year. The ideal level of humidity for Lobesia botrana to develop is between 40 and 70%. The level needed for Eupoecilia (Clysia) ambiguella is over 75%.
Drought and high summer temperatures can lead to a high egg mortality rate.
The development threshold for larvae is 10OC. The photoperiod determines the onset of diapause, insects from eggs that are laid later than July enter diapause when they pupate. All these climatic factors influence the evolution of the pest and consequently the damage it can cause. Damage is greater where there are three generations per year.
DETECTION AND MONITORING
1 to 2 traps should be set per hectare at crop level. They should be placed on the vineyards or on a hanger for this purpose. The traps should be set at the beginning of flowering.
Mostly the males of this species are captured in order to reduce mating so that females that have not copulated will have non-viable eggs. This reduces the pest population.
The number of traps per surface area should be increased for mass trapping, depending on the location and homogeneity of the crops. One trap can control an area of between 500 and 1,000 m². This entails a trap density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare.
A trap ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets (Code: TA118) or ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR (Code: TA242) and a pheromone diffuser ECONEX LOBESIA BOTRANA 2 MG 40 DAYS.
The trap ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets is activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR (Code: TA248) at the base of it. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure sensitive adhesive, solvent free, in which insects are trapped. The trap ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR is coated on its inner face with a layer of contact adhesive, solvent free, for the retention of the insects.
Both traps stand out above all for their simplicity of use, and will be operative until pheromone depletion or saturation of the sheet or adhesive surface. The pheromone diffuser is placed inside the trap on the sheet or adhesive surface.
PERIOD OF USE
To achieve good control of Lobesia botrana, it is advisable to combine the two methods: detection and monitoring and mass trapping.
In spring you can place 1 to 2 traps per hectare to detect the pest and observe the level of their populations.
Through established thresholds of tolerance in each area, the control measures are later defined, in this case mass trapping. The threshold of tolerance for Lobesia botrana is very low and varies according to the area. Generally it is between 1 and 3 captures per trap and per day. Moment in which we recommend to set traps all over the crop for mass trappings.
The 1st generation damages the flower buds and flowers but the damage is not fatal as it does not affect either the quantity or quality of the harvest.
The 2nd and 3rd generation directly damage the grapes by penetrating and feeding on them. This leads to a loss in the commercial value of the grapes.
The most serious damage is caused by the 2nd and 3rd generation larvae when they puncture holes in the fruit. This is how rot and mould (especially Botrytis) can start which can be very serious.
If technicians or farmers use the traps and pheromones as described here and when the first generation of adults emerges, then the effectiveness of this control system is very good, as proved by data from many organic farms. When large crop areas are covered more than 95% of the pest is often controlled.
A factor limiting this system is when there are small farms in many places with neighbouring plots that have a high level of infestation of the pest.
Apart from some important basic rules in effectively controlling Lobesia botrana, each farmer/technician should find his/her own system of achieving this and he/she may experiment with this system even establishing his/her own tolerance thresholds.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NUMBER OF TRAPS REQUIRED
Pest population, adjoining crops, level of control required, etc.
An important factor is crop size. More traps are needed in small and irregular sized crops than in uniform plots with a larger surface area. Another important factor is the distance from other plots that have the same pest. In such cases plot boundaries should be consolidated, so a trap density of up to 20 traps per hectare may be needed. More traps may be needed in the case of mass trappings.
STORAGE OF THE DIFFUSERS
The diffusers must be kept in their original container and in a refrigerator at 4oC, or in the freezer at -18oC, in which case they will remain valid for 2 and 4 years respectively.