Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Cydia pomonella to attract males, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions...
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|Target pest||Codling moth|
|OMDF register number||107/2016|
Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Cydia pomonella to attract males, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions.
Diffuser of natural rubber in capsule-shape. It is packaged individually in an aluminium sachet with labelled instructions. Once taken out of the sachet, the diffuser does not need any activation operation. Simply place it directly in the trap.
It is a pest of Palearctic origin nowwidespread all over the world and mainly causes damage to pip-fruit trees. It produces worms in fruits and is one of the most serious pests of apple crops.
Cydia (Laspeyresia) pomonella, mainly attacks the fruit of the apple, pear and quince trees. It can occasionally attack fruits of the walnut and chestnut trees as well as apricots and plums.
MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY
The adult can reach 20 mm in size. The front wings are greyish with a markedly darker spot in the distal area surrounded by a brighter area with golden tones.
The eggs are laid in isolation and measure about 1 mm. They are circular, flat and white at the top. Later they develop a characteristic red ring. The black head of the caterpillar can be seen before hatching.
The caterpillar grows to 20 mm passing 5 larval stages. Initially it is white with a black head, later changing to a pinkish colour with a brown head. It may have a more reddish tone during the summer in stone fruit.
The caterpillars differ from other tortricides in the absence of an anal comb. The pupa is brown with a double row of spines on the abdominal segments.
The insect winters in the form of a fully-developed larva in a very resistant silk cocoon. The cocoon may be under the trunk's bark or the main branches but may also be found in warehouses, bags, boxes or on the floor.
Development begins at the end of winter and pupation is in early spring in March or April. The adults appear from May to June although in warmer years adults may appear in April.
It is noted for its very gradual departure of adults so that all the generations in a year overlap. Adults fly at dusk and dawn and are active only at temperatures above 15O C. In temperate areas there are 2 to 3 generations a year, the final one may be only partial. One phenomenon they show is of optional diapause, meaning that a percentage of individuals from each generation enter diapause and their development is frozen until the next year. The entry into diapause of the final generation of caterpillars depends on the photoperiod, temperature and maturity of the fruit.
Each female lays 20 to 60 eggs, mainly on the leaves but they can be found on fruit or shoots. After a few days (90 degree-days) the larvae hatch, move towards the fruit and feed at the top of the crust, slightly eroding the surface. They later enter the fruit, move towards the centre to feed on the seeds. They leave the fruit to pupate on the trunk or branches.
DETECTION AND MONITORING
1 trap should be set per hectare, placed at crop level. Traps can be placed on trees or on a hanger for this purpose. The traps should be set in spring.
Mostly the males of this species are captured, in order to reduce the mating, so that non-copulated females will have unviable eggs. This reduces the pest population
To carry out mass trapping the number of traps per area should be increased depending on the location and homogeneity of the crops. One trap can control an area of between 500 and 1,000 m². This entails a trap density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare.
A trap ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets (Code: TA118) or ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR (Code: TA242) and a pheromone diffuser ECONEX CYDIA POMONELLA 2 MG 40 DAYS.
The trap ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets is activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR (Code: TA248) at the base of it. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure sensitive adhesive, solvent free, in which insects are trapped. The trap ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR is coated on its inner face with a layer of contact adhesive, solvent free, for the retention of the insects.
Both traps stand out above all for their simplicity of use, and will be operative until pheromone depletion or saturation of the sheet or adhesive surface.
The pheromone diffuser is placed inside the trap on the sheet or adhesive surface.
PERIOD OF USE
To achieve good control of the Cydia pomonella, it is advisable to combine the two methods: detection and monitoring and mass trapping. In spring you can place 1 to 2 traps per hectare to detect the pest and observe the level of their populations.
Through established thresholds of tolerance in each area, the control measures are later defined, in this case mass trapping. The threshold of tolerance for Cydia pomonella is very low and varies according to the area. Generally it is around 3 captures per trap and per week. Moment in which we recommend to set traps all over the crop for mass trappings.
As soon as the eggs hatch the larvae move towards the fruit and nibble at the crust. This can last from one to two days. Later they puncture the flesh, moving towards the centre to the seeds. They excrete waste in the form of reddish sawdust through the entry hole.
The first generation larvae may not gain enough food from a small fruit, thus entering another one to complete their development.
The superficial erosion causes crop depreciation by their presence. Some larvae cannot penetrate the fruit and thus die. If the caterpillar enters the fruit, the fruit may fall early especially during the first and second generations, making it unusable for consumption. The losses can be quite considerable and can even result in the loss of the entire crop.
If technicians or farmers use the traps and pheromones as described here and when the first generation of adults emerges, then the effectiveness of this control system is very good, as proved by data from many organic farms. When large crop areas are covered, more than 95% of the pest is often controlled.
A factor limiting this system is where there are small farms surrounded by other plots with a high level of infestation of this pest.
Apart from some important basic rules in controlling Cydia pomonella effectively, each farmer/technician should find his/her own system of achieving this and he/she may experiment with this system, even establishing his/her own tolerance thresholds.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NUMBER OF TRAPS REQUIRED
Pest population, adjoining crops, level of control required, etc.
An important factor is crop size. In small and irregular sized crops a greater number of traps will be needed. Another important factor is the distance between crops with the same pest. In such cases the crop boundaries should be reinforced, so a trap density of about 20 traps per hectare may be needed. More traps may be needed in the case of mass trappings
STORAGE OF THE DIFFUSERS
The diffusers must be kept in their original container and in a refrigerator at 4oC, or in the freezer at -18oC, in which case they will remain valid for 2 and 4 years respectively.