Kairo-feromonal attractant diffuser for the attraction of both sexes of the species Cosmopolites sordidus, with a duration of 90 days in normal field conditions...
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|Target pest||Banana weevil|
Kairo-feromonal attractant diffuser for the attraction of both sexes of the species Cosmopolites sordidus, with a duration of 90 days in normal field conditions. The diffuser consists of a polyolefin bag permeable to the active ingredients. Once taken out of the sachet, the diffuser does not need any activation operation. Simply place it directly in the trap.
Cosmopolites sordidus is considered to be the most serious pest affecting banana crops.
MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY
This weevil is 9-16 mm long. Its body is elliptical, dark brown to black in colour and its face extends into a curved beak, hence its name. The adult has nocturnal habits, taking refuge during the day on the ground among the leftovers of the banana tree or at the base of the pseudostem. It feeds on both fresh and decomposing plants, although it has been known to go almost 6 months without eating. The life span of the adult is estimated to be 2 years.
The female lays its eggs in isolation at the base by digging a small cavity with its beak. The larva that emerges from the egg has a white, rough body, which contrasts with the bright brown of its head. The head causes the most damage because it feeds by opening galleries with its mouth. It completes its life cycle inside this gallery and only exits it when it is ready to turn into a pupa.
The nymph or pupa is white and remains immobile until the adult emerges. When the adult emerges it is yellow but rapidly turns from coffee brown to dark brown to black. It has 4 to 7 generations per year.
Due to the adults' nocturnal activity and the location of the larvae inside the plant, the presence of weevils in the crop can go unnoticed.
The external symptoms are not characteristic as they can be confused with other phytosanitary problems. Such symptoms include yellowing of the leaves, necrosis, tree death, stunted plant development, reduced fruit produce, et
Source: Canary Islands Banana Cooperative (COPLACA).
DETECTION AND MONITORING
One EOSTRAP® COSMOPOLITES trap should be set per hectare and should be checked once a week to count the number of weevils trapped.
The tolerance threshold of Cosmopolites sordidus is very low. Generally it is between 5 and 10 captures per trap per week (medium level). This is the moment to set traps all over the crop to carry out mass trapping.
To make mass trapping the number of traps per surface area should be increased, taking into account the location, surface and homogeneity of the plots.
Different techniques may be used in carrying out mass trapping in some areas:
Mass trapping with EOSTRAP® COSMOPOLITES traps in moveable position:
4 traps per hectare should be used.
As Cosmopolites sordidus is not a flying insect, traps should be set all along the infested area with the aim of covering as much terrain as possible, thereby decreasing the pest population.
Traps should initially be set 20 metres from each other and 10 metres from the plot boundaries. The line of traps should be moved 20 m. in the same direction every month. This practice requires a trap density of 4 traps per hectare to attract insects throughout the catchment area for a period of 4 to 5 months.
Mass trapping with EOSTRAP® COSMOPOLITES traps in fixed positions:
Utilizaremos de 8 a 16 trampas por hectárea en posiciones fijas. El número de las mismas dependerá del nivel de población de Cosmopolites sordidus.
With fixed position traps less time is required for their maintenance and they are often used on farms where labour costs are high. In both options if you want to reduce water evaporation we can recommend the use of oil.
EOSTRAP® COSMOPOLITES traps. The traps should be buried in the ground until the side holes are at ground level so that Cosmopolites sordidus falls into the trap. Once they are trapped inside they are drowned in a solution of water and detergent (1 - 3%) at the bottom of the trap. The level of the solution is 3 to 4 cm and should be checked every one to two weeks.
The ECONEX COSMOPOLITES SORDIDUS 90 DAYS diffuser should not get wet. The traps should not be left without water. The traps should be covered with leftover banana leaves, thus optimising weevil capture.
The traps should be marked with a cane in the ground so as to easily locate the area and carry out maintenance work.
If technicians and farmers use the pheromones and traps properly, as described above and especially when the first generation of adults emerges, then the effectiveness of this control system is very good as demonstrated by data from many organic farms, which have shown a very low level of damage.
Following 12 months of mass trapping, a reduction of damage to the corm of more than 80% is not uncommon, especially where large crop areas have been treated. This is in addition to a weight increase of more than 20% in the bunches of fruit.
One factor that limits this system is where there are many small plots distributed over a large area with neighbouring plots that have a high level of infestation of this pest.
Apart from important basic rules in controlling Cosmopolites sordidus effectively each farmer or technician should find his/her own system of achieving this and can experiment with this system, even establishing his/her own tolerance thresholds.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NUMBER OF TRAPS REQUIRED
The population of Cosmopolites sordidus, adjoining crops, level of control required, etc. An important factor is crop size. More traps will be needed in small and irregular sized crops than in uniform plots with a larger surface area.
Another important factor is the distance from other infested plots. In such cases the plot boundaries should be consolidated, so a trap density of up to 16 traps per hectare may be needed. More traps may be needed in the case of mass trapping.
STORAGE OF THE DIFFUSERS
The diffusers must be kept in their original container and in a refrigerator at 20oC, in which case they will remain valid for 1 year.